Dating psychology articles
Moreover, Ueberwasser was long-standing member of the “Circle of Münster,” a small, close-knit society around Fürstenberg and Princess Amalia Gallitzin (Bödeker, 2003). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.The Circle of Münster existed from 1779/1780 to 1806 and included a number of eminent former Jesuits. Scientific psychology in the 18th century: a historical rediscovery. After the society had been banned by papal decree in 1773, ex-Jesuits often developed close ties to selected members of the local catholic elites. doi: 10.1177/1745691616635601 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Ueberwasser, F. Anweisungen zum Regelmäßigen Studium der Empirischen Psychologie für die Candidaten der Philosophie zu Münster [Instructions for the Regular Study of Empirical Psychology for Candidates of Philosophy at the University of Münster]. Wontorra, M., Meischner-Metge, A., and Schröger, E. Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) und die Anfänge der Experimentellen Psychologie. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).This was also true for Ueberwasser, as Fürstenberg was a decisively catholic statesman and an active promoter of former Jesuits; he thus ensured that several former Jesuits attained positions in renowned schools, the local military academy, or the University of Münster. [Wilhelm Wundt (1832 - 1920) and the Beginnings of Experimental Psychology]. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.That is, while other pioneers of a scientific and experimental approach to psychological questions such as Weber (1795–1878), Fechner (1801–1887) or Helmholtz (1821–1894) did not consider themselves psychologists, Ueberwasser and Wundt both attempted to establish psychology as an independent field of study, explicitly portraying themselves as psychologists.In addition to these structural similarities, Ueberwasser's and Wundt's conceptions of scientific psychology also converge on a number of critical theoretical aspects.The educational part of these reforms included a seminal commitment to psychology, with Fürstenberg declaring psychology as a “core science” to be taught at every school within the territory (von Fürstenberg, 1776).
Finally, in 1787 he published a remarkable textbook entitled “Instructions for the regular study of empirical psychology for candidates of philosophy at the University of Münster” (Ger.: “Anweisungen zum regelmäßigen Studium der Empirischen Psychologie für die Candidaten der Philosophie zu Münster”).
These commonalities beg the question of whether Ueberwasser's legacy should be construed either as an early precursor of contemporary psychology or, alternatively, whether it deserves even stronger recognition in terms of a founding date of scientific psychology?
We believe that—despite being outstanding and unparalleled at their time—Ueberwasser's achievements still fall short of a true foundation of scientific psychology, for the sole reason that his works did not establish a continued tradition of scientific psychology in the academic system nor do they seem to have been pivotal at inspiring later developments, particularly early psychophysical work (e.g., Fechner, 1860), or Wundt's comprehensive approach to psychology (cf. Rather, Ueberwasser's legacy seems to have disappeared relatively quickly, so that only few references to his work appear even in writings that were published shortly after his death, i.e., at the outset of the nineteenth century (Carus, 1808; Biunde, 1832). Prior to his academic appointments, Ueberwasser had been a novice in the Society of Jesus, thus pursuing a clerical career.
In his textbook, Ueberwasser outlined the methodological foundations of scientific psychology, followed by a broad overview of relevant psychological phenomena ranging from perception and memory to motivation, emotion, and volition (Ueberwasser, 1787; see also Schwarz and Pfister, 2016, for details on Ueberwasser's psychology).
At 1787, scientific psychology thus seems to have made a first appearance as an independent discipline: It was officially represented by a state-funded professorship, the university had integrated psychological courses in its curriculum, and an early manifesto outlined structure and scope of the discipline.
For instance, both emphasize the utility of physiological processes for understanding psychology, while simultaneously arguing against physiological reductionism.